Chronology of Mughal Dynasty.


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Here's a detailed chronology of the Mughal Empire, highlighting the emperors, their reigns, and significant battles:

  1. Babur (1526-1530)
  • Battle of Panipat (1526): Defeated Ibrahim Lodi, establishing the Mughal Empire in India.

  • Battle of Khanwa (1527): Defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar.

  • Battle of Ghagra (1529): Defeated the Afghan chiefs and Sultan Mahmud Lodi.

  1. Humayun (1530-1540, 1555-1556)
  • Battle of Chausa (1539): Defeated by Sher Shah Suri.

  • Battle of Kannauj (1540): Defeated by Sher Shah Suri, leading to Humayun's exile.

  • Return and reconquest (1555): Regained the throne with Persian support.

  1. Akbar (1556-1605)
  • Second Battle of Panipat (1556): Defeated Hemu, consolidating Mughal control.

  • Siege of Chittorgarh (1567-1568): Conquered the fort of Chittor.

  • Battle of Haldighati (1576): Fought against Rana Pratap of Mewar; inconclusive but strategic Mughal victory.

  1. Jahangir (1605-1627)
  • Campaigns in Mewar (1613-1615): Concluded a treaty with Rana Amar Singh, bringing Mewar into Mughal control.

  • Kangra Fort (1615): Captured the fort of Kangra.

  1. Shah Jahan (1628-1658)
  • Deccan campaigns (1630-1647): Conquests in the Deccan against the Ahmadnagar Sultanate.

  • War of succession (1657-1658): His sons fought for the throne; eventually, Aurangzeb emerged victorious.

  1. Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
  • Battle of Samugarh (1658): Defeated his brother Dara Shikoh.

  • Conquest of Bijapur (1686): Annexed the Bijapur Sultanate.

  • Conquest of Golconda (1687): Annexed the Golconda Sultanate.

  • Maratha Wars (1680s-1707): Prolonged conflict with the Marathas, resulting in a stalemate.

  1. Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)
  • Battle of Jajau (1707): Defeated his brother Azam Shah to ascend the throne.
  1. Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)
  • Battle of Agra (1712): Defeated by Farrukhsiyar.
  1. Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719)
  • Battle of Samugarh (1713): Ascended the throne with the support of the Sayyid Brothers.

  • Deposed and executed (1719): Overthrown by the Sayyid Brothers.

  1. Rafi Ul-Darjat (1719)
  • Short reign (1719): Placed on the throne by the Sayyid Brothers; deposed within a few months.
  1. Shah Jahan II (1719)
  • Brief reign (1719): Also installed and deposed by the Sayyid Brothers.
  1. Muhammad Shah (1719-1748)
  • Battle of Karnal (1739): Defeated by Nader Shah of Persia; Delhi sacked.

  • Maratha invasions (1740s): Lost significant territory to the Marathas.

  1. Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748-1754)
  • Battle of Sikandarabad (1754): Defeated by his vizier Imad-ul-Mulk, leading to his deposition.
  1. Alamgir II (1754-1759)
  • Power struggles (1754-1759): Controlled by various factions; assassinated.
  1. Shah Jahan III (1759-1760)
  • Installed by the Marathas (1759): Puppet ruler under Maratha influence; deposed in 1760.
  1. Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
  • Battle of Buxar (1764): Defeated by the British East India Company, resulting in Mughal subservience.

  • Treaty of Allahabad (1765): Granted the British Diwani rights (revenue collection) in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.

  1. Akbar Shah II (1806-1837)
  • British dominance (1806-1837): Reduced to a titular figure under British control.
  1. Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857)
  • Indian Rebellion of 1857: Symbolic leader of the revolt; captured by the British.

  • Exile (1858): Exiled to Rangoon, marking the end of the Mughal Empire.

This chronology outlines the reigns of the Mughal emperors and highlights significant military engagements and outcomes, showing the rise, consolidation, and eventual decline of the Mughal Empire.

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