Civics Ch. 4


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4. Answer the following questions in one or two words:

a. What is the full form of WHO?

Ans. World Health Organization.

b. In which year National Policy on Health was introduced?

Ans. 1983.

c. What is the position of India in the world in term of area?

Ans. India is the seventh-largest country in the world in terms of area.

d. What is the secondary tier for rural development?

Ans. The secondary tier for rural development in India is the Panchayat Samiti, also known as the Block Development Council.

5. Answer the following questions in brief:

a. Where and when was the first district psychiatry unit set up in Kerala?

Ans. The first district psychiatry unit in Kerala was set up in 1970 at the Mental Health Centre, Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram).

b. What is the Minimum Needs Programme for health care?

Ans. The Minimum Needs Programme (MNP) for healthcare, introduced during the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-1979), aimed to provide basic health services in rural areas. It focused on rural health services, safe drinking water, nutrition, rural roads, rural electrification, and primary education to improve the quality of life for underprivileged and rural populations in India.

c. Write in brief about National Leprosy Eradication Programme.

Ans. The National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) in India, launched in 1983, aims to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem. It provides free multidrug therapy, conducts surveillance, trains healthcare workers, and runs public awareness campaigns to reduce stigma and promote early treatment.

d. What is role of tertiary health care?

Ans. Tertiary healthcare provides specialized medical treatment for complex and severe health conditions that cannot be managed at primary or secondary levels. It includes services like organ transplants, cardiac surgery, cancer treatment, and intensive care.

e. What is the role of District Blindness control societies?

Ans. District Blindness Control Societies coordinate and implement blindness prevention and control activities at the district level. They organize screening camps, treatment access, awareness campaigns, training, and collaborate with stakeholders to ensure effective eye care services reach the community.

6. Answer the following questions in detail:

a. Define various community health care programmes in Kerala.

Ans. In Kerala, community health care programs include initiatives like Kudumbashree Mission for health and sanitation, Arogyakiranam health insurance, Karunya Benevolent Fund for medical assistance, Janani Suraksha Yojana for maternal health, School Health Programme for students, and National Rural Health Mission for rural healthcare improvement.

b. What are Private Health Services?

Ans. Private health services refer to healthcare facilities, clinics, hospitals, or practitioners that are owned and operated by private entities or individuals. These services are funded through patient fees, private insurance, or out-of-pocket payments and are separate from government-run or publicly funded healthcare systems.

c. Explain the Costa Rican Approach.

Ans. The Costa Rican approach to healthcare is characterized by its universal healthcare system, which provides comprehensive health coverage to all citizens, regardless of their socioeconomic status. This system is largely funded through taxation and operates under the principles of solidarity and equity. Key features of the Costa Rican approach include:

  1. Universal Coverage

  2. Decentralization

  3. Integrated Care

  4. Public Funding

  5. Emphasis on Primary Care

d. What are the reason for the success of Kerala's healthcare programme?

Ans. Kerala's healthcare success stems from its robust public infrastructure, high literacy rates promoting health awareness, effective primary healthcare, community involvement in decision-making, and sustained investment in healthcare personnel.

e. How is resource allocation done in a state?

Ans. Resource allocation in a state involves the government distributing funds and resources among different sectors and programs based on priorities, needs, and available resources. This process is guided by budgeting, planning, and decision-making to ensure efficient and effective utilization of resources to meet the population's needs.

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